The Origin of Water Kefir


You may be familiar with the origins of milk kefir, but what about water kefir? Where did that originate and how does it differ from milk kefir? Although both products are made from “grains” these are not actual grains, but rather clusters of bacteria and yeast living in a symbiotic relationship and held together by a polysaccharide (dextran) produced by Lactobacillus brevis. These clusters of bacteria, yeast, and polysaccharide look like little crystals, or “grains” of jelly. The bacteria and yeasts in the grains utilize sugar to produce lactic acid, ethanol (a small amount), and carbon dioxide.

Water kefir grains are known by a variety of names, but most commonly are called tibicos, Japanese water crystals, and California bees. You might also see them referred to as Australian Bees, African Bees, Ginger Bees, Ginger Beer Plant, Sea Rice, or Aqua Gems, to name a few. Different countries call them by different names. In Germany they may be called Piltz; in Italy; Kefir di Frutta; and in France, Graines Vivantes. In Mexico, tibicos (or tibi) is used to make a fermented beverage called Tepache, made from pineapple, brown sugar, and cinnamon.

Because of the highly active nature of the bacteria and yeasts, there are many variations of the exact culture that produces the fizzy water kefir drink.

It is not completely clear where or when water kefir grains originated, but speculation points toward Mexico as the most likely place of origin. According to some research, the tibicos culture forms on the pads of the Opuntia cactus from Mexico as hard granules that can be reconstituted in a sugar-water solution as propagating tibicos. There is documentation from the late 1800s of water kefir grains being used in fermented drink made from the sweetened juice of the prickly pear cactus in Mexico.

There are, however, stories that place their origin, or at least their use, in Tibet, the Caucasus Mountains, and the southern peninsula of the Ukraine. Pinpointing a place of origin is made even more difficult because water kefir cultures can be found throughout the world and no two cultures are exactly the same. Lack of recorded history also makes it difficult to place an origin date, but it seems likely these grains have been used for many centuries.

Regardless of what name is given to water kefir grains, or the exact makeup of the culture, the technique for using them is basically the same throughout the world. The grains are added to a sugary liquid and the mixture is allowed to ferment at room temperature for 24 to 48 hours. The sugary liquid can be sugar water, fruit juice, or coconut water. Fresh or unsulphured dried fruit can be added to flavor the water kefir, generally after the initial 24- to 48-hour fermentation time and after the grains have been removed from the liquid. By bottling the fermented water kefir in a bottle with a tight lid, carbon dioxide will be contained, producing a nice effervescence or soda pop-like quality. Be sure to store this drink in the refrigerator to slow or halt the fermentation process and reduce the possibility of bottles exploding from too much pressure.

With a little care and precaution, water kefir grains can be maintained indefinitely. Often, the grains will multiply in number, but not always. Chlorine in tap water can damage the grains, as can preservatives added to dried fruit or sprayed on conventional produce. Kefir grains need minerals and unrefined whole cane sugar supplies a good amount of minerals. Refined sugar may be used, but distilled water is not advised unless you add liquid mineral drops.

If you cannot tolerate dairy, or if you are just looking for an alternative to commercial sodas, water kefir beverages can be a fun, easy, and tasty way to quench your thirst while adding more probiotics to your diet.

Prickly Pear Cactus

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